Optimised passive marker device visibility and automatic marker detection for 3-T MRI-guided endovascular interventions: a pulsatile flow phantom study
Passive paramagnetic markers on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-compatible endovascular devices induce susceptibility artifacts, enabling MRI-visibility and real-time MRI-guidance. Optimised visibility is crucial for automatic detection and device tracking but depends on MRI technical parameters and marker characteristics. We assessed marker visibility and automatic detection robustness for varying MRI parameters and marker characteristics in a pulsatile flow phantom. Marker visibility was sufficient and a large range of artifact sizes was generated by adjusting TE and IONP concentration. Deep learning-based marker detection was feasible but performance decreased for altered MR parameters. These factors should be considered to optimise device visibility and ensure reliable automatic marker detectability in MRI-guided endovascular interventions.